terminal – How high is the risk of losing data when unplugging a MacOS Extended (Journaled) formatted external drive without ejecting it first?

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I know, you should always eject before unplugging a drive.

But as seen in these questions, and their absence of conclusive answers, sometimes MacOS refuses to eject a drive because Finder (understand “Spotlight“) is using it (understand “indexing“), and even Terminal cannot kill the indexing process on certain types of drives (like Time Machine drives).

However, I was always told that the file format “MacOS Extended (Journaled)” was designed to significantly limit the possible loss of files if a cable was disconnected without being able to achieve software ejection.

Is it risky at all to unplug the cable of an external drive in the MacOS Extended Journaled format, when the OS refuses to eject it and when it is not desirable for the user to power off the computer?