An **algorithm** is a sequential procedure that specifies a list of steps to be taken in a particular order in order to achieve the desired outcome. An algorithm can be implemented in more than one programming language because algorithms are typically constructed independently of the underlying languages.

From the standpoint of data structures, the following are some significant algorithmic categories:

- An algorithm to look in a data structure for a certain item.

- Sort is a hierarchy-based algorithm used to order objects.

**Insert**is the name of an item insertion algorithm for data structures.

**Update:**An algorithm for changing a component of an existing data structure.

- The word
**“delete”**refers to an algorithm that eliminates an existing item from a data structure.

## Algorithm Characteristics:

Not every process may be referred to as an algorithm. An algorithm should have the qualities listed below:

**Clear and unambiguous –**An algorithm should be both. Each of its steps (or phases), as well as its inputs and outputs, must be distinct and have a single meaning.- An algorithm that is clearly stated should have zero or more inputs.
- The outputs of an algorithm must be clearly stated and must match the intended result.
- Algorithms must come to an end after a certain number of steps, or finiteness.
**Feasibility –**Given the available resources, it must be achievable.- An algorithm should have step-by-step directions that are not dependent on any computer code. For detailed instructions, refer to the algorithms and
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**The Art of Writing an Algorithm:**

There are no clear guidelines for creating algorithms. Instead, it is resource- and problem-dependent. Algorithms are never created to assist a specific programming language.

As we all know, basic code features like loops (do, for, while), flow-control (if-else), etc. are shared by all programming languages. It is possible to design an algorithm using these standard constructions.

Although we typically write algorithms step-by-step, this is not always the case. After the problem area is well specified, the process of writing algorithms is carried out. In other words, we need to be aware of the problem for which we are building a solution.

- Usually, the second way is used to explain an algorithm in algorithm design and analysis. It facilitates the analyst’s ability to examine the algorithm while ignoring all unnecessary definitions. He can watch the procedures in use and the process’s movement.
- Numbering the steps is not required.
- To find a solution to a particular problem, we create an algorithm. Multiple approaches can be used to solve a problem.

**Algorithm Analysis:**

It is possible to evaluate an algorithm’s effectiveness both before and after implementation. These include the following:

- An algorithm is examined theoretically in an a priori examination. The effectiveness of an algorithm is evaluated on the presumption that all other variables, such as processor speed, are fixed and have no impact on the implementation.

- This is an empirical examination of an algorithm known as a posterior analysis. Programming language is used to carry out the chosen algorithm. This is then carried out on the target computer system. Actual data, such as the amount of time and space needed to complete the analysis, is gathered.

- The study of a priori algorithm analysis will be covered. The execution or running time of the various operations involved is the focus of algorithm analysis. The number of computer instructions that are executed during an operation can be used to determine its execution time.

## The complexity of Algorithms:

Assuming X is an algorithm and n is the size of the input data, the efficiency of X is primarily determined by how much time and space the algorithm X uses.

**Time Factor:**The number of crucial operations, such as comparisons in the sorting algorithm, is used to calculate time.

**Space Factor:**The amount of space is calculated by adding together how much memory the method can use.

- When n is used as the size of the input data, the complexity of an algorithm (f(n)) is expressed in terms of the running time and/or storage space needed by the method.

## Space Complexity:

An algorithm’s space complexity is a measurement of how much memory it uses over its existence. An algorithm’s space requirement is equal to the sum of the next two factors:

- A fixed component that is the area needed to hold particular data and variables, independent of the problem’s size. Using basic variables and constants, the size of the program, etc.

- A variable portion is an area used by variables, whose size is determined by the problem’s size. For instance, dynamic memory allocation, stack space for recursions, etc.

**Space Complexity – **Any algorithm’s S(P) P is defined as S(P) = C + SP(I), where C denotes the algorithm’s fixed portion and S(I) denotes its variable portion, which is dependent on the instance characteristic I. The example that follows attempts to illustrate the idea.

SUM algorithm (A, B)

Start with Step 1

A + B + 10 + C = Step 2

Third step: Stop

Three variables-A, B, and C-as well as a constant, are included here. So S(P) = 1 + 3 Now, space will be multiplied in accordance with the data types of the specified variables and constant types.

**Time Complexity:**

The length of time an algorithm takes to run through to completion is referred to as its time complexity. Time requirements can be expressed as a mathematical function T(n), where T(n) is the number of steps, assuming that each step takes a fixed amount of time.

For instance, it requires n steps to add two n-bit integers. As a result, the total calculation time is given by T(n) = c n, where c is the time required to add two bits. Here, we note that as input size increases, T(n) climbs linearly.

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