Easy methods to use Reference Mode in your iPad Professional


iPad Professional.

Reference Mode enhances colours and metadata, making it ideally suited to be used in skilled workflows. Here is the best way to apply it to your iPad Professional.

Reference Mode on an iPad is a particular show mode designed for professionals. It makes use of Excessive Dynamic Vary (HDR) versus Normal Dynamic Vary (SDR).

HDR includes a host of enhancements for shows and TVs to enhance each image high quality and colour.

In {many professional} workflows, brightness, colour accuracy, and element are necessary. Having the ability to know and see colours precisely as they’re is necessary.

HDR has the flexibility to ship particular and customised metadata on the pixel stage to shows. This tells the shows the best way to finest present photos and video.

To make use of Reference Mode on an iPad Professional, you may want a minimum of iPadOS 16 and an:

  • iPad Professional 13-inch (M4)
  • iPad Professional 11-inch (M4)
  • iPad Professional 12.9-inch fifth gen or later

These iPad Professional fashions all use applied sciences that may deal with the trials of Reference Mode. Specifically, they use OLED or mini LED-backlit shows.


There are a lot of skilled colour requirements out there and Reference Mode on iPad Professional helps the next requirements:

  • BT.709
  • BT.601 SMPTE-C
  • BT.601 EBU
  • sRGB
  • HDR10 BT.2100 PQ
  • BT.2100 HLG Dolby Imaginative and prescient Profile 8.4
  • Dolby Imaginative and prescient Profile 5

The Society of Movement Image and Tv Engineers, SMPTE, creates and maintains a number of requirements for video manufacturing and enhancing.

Enhancing apps akin to Closing Minimize Professional, for instance, use a video timecode normal created by SMPTE.

In picture science, a number of colour fashions can be found, and most colour fashions are centered round an absolute reference level representing pure white. That is known as the white level.

Through the use of colour fashions with correct white factors, colour will be higher represented on completely different units.

Shade fashions will be translated between one another for various units, and for print. Most print manufacturing makes use of a colour mannequin known as CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black).

By being apple to use completely different colour fashions to completely different units, colour can extra precisely be represented when adjusted for show and print variations in colour.

Apple’s Reference Mode makes use of a normal illuminant white level known as D65, which is a reference normal daylight mild supply white level outlined by the Worldwide Fee on Illumination (Fee internationale de l’eclairage, or CIE) situated in Vienna Austria.

Shade areas

There’s fairly a little bit of advanced math concerned in colour science, which we can’t get into right here. A fast clarification is that every part wavelength (colour) contained in a lightweight supply will be described as a degree on a 2D gradient mixed with a spectral energy or depth stage.

Put merely, consider the computation of a lightweight supply’s colour as a method that calculates the relative depth of every wavelength in a lightweight supply.

CIE calls this a spectral energy distribution.

In 1931 CIE outlined a median or typical colour distribution in a colour house referred to as the CIE 1931 colour house.

This colour house was the results of experiments by colour researchers between colour wavelengths and colours perceived by people.

Shade notion can range broadly amongst individuals, and what could appear to be one colour to at least one particular person may look completely different to a different. For this reason goal measurable colour requirements are wanted.

CIE's 1931 standard color space.

The 1931 CIE normal colour house.

There are different colour areas as properly, representing completely different wavelength distributions on a grid. That is known as a gamut, which is often represented as a colour map or dice.

Every colour house usually has its personal white level, or place on the graph at which pure white is situated.

By switching colour areas on a show or in a picture, you may each change the white level and the way the colours are distributed throughout the gamut.

Most, however not all colour areas are primarily based on the Pink, Inexperienced, Blue (RGB mannequin), which makes use of three main colours. When the colours are combined, new colours are created.

In 1996, Microsoft and Hewlett Packard outlined the sRGB colour house. It was an try to standardize and outline colour on pc shows.

sRGB relies on a subset of the 1931 CIE colour house, which is derived from the colours used within the HDTV (ITU-R BT.709) normal.

The sRGB colour house makes an attempt to outline a standard minimal set of RGB colours. Most traditional pc shows can present this colour vary, and folks with regular colour imaginative and prescient can understand it.

It is properly accepted that the utmost variety of particular person colours most people with regular imaginative and prescient can understand is 16.2 million. However pc show photos can save knowledge by solely displaying a smaller vary of colours.

Such photos are nonetheless perceived as “full-color”, regardless that they do not embody the total 16.2 million vary.

sRGB is among the colour requirements Apple helps in Reference Mode on the iPad Professional.

The thought behind the D65 white level is that common daylight is obtainable in every single place and is mostly uniform. Subsequently it may be used as a reference supply in comparison with broadly variable sources of indoor and show lighting and colours.

Microsoft sRGB color gamut.

Microsoft sRGB colour house. Be aware the D65 white level.

D65 makes an attempt to outline a impartial common daylight white level as a reference level to mannequin different colours round.

Reference Mode additionally disables all iPad Professional show changes akin to ambient mild, True Tone, Auto-Brightness, and different options.

Shade temperature

The colour temperature of a lightweight supply is mostly measured in Kelvins, with every quantity outlined as a colour solid offset added to pure white.

Kelvin is definitely a measure of temperature, like Fahrenheit or Celsius. In reality, 0 Kelvin equals -273.15 Celsius – often known as absolute zero or the coldest temperature that may be measured.

5000K is taken into account “daylight” white, decrease numbers akin to 3000K or 3500K are thought-about extra “heat” with a reddish hue, whereas increased numbers akin to 6500K-10000K are extra blueish.

Individuals with regular colour imaginative and prescient would understand 6000K-7000K as “pure white”. Technically it is actually a lightweight blue colour.

These numbers are referred to as colour temperatures. By altering the colour temperature or hue of a picture or mild supply, you modify the general colour solid which will be adjusted for colour biases in units akin to shows and TVs.

Shade temperature changes on shows can be utilized to compensate a tool’s basic colour bias. It may also be compensated in software program on particular person photos which can have a colour bias when taken.

For instance, fluorescent lighting is understood to provide a inexperienced solid to most digicam photos. Halogen or tungsten lighting is understood to supply a extra heat, or reddish tone.

By adjusting the colour temperature of a picture, you may appropriate for lighting biases.

That is what occurs when you choose, for instance, the Auto Shade menu possibility in Adobe’s Photoshop picture enhancing software program.

Now that you understand how colour principle works, you are able to allow Reference Mode in your iPad Professional.

Enabling Reference Mode in iPadOS

In your iPad Professional, you may flip Reference Mode on and off by going to Settings->Show & Brightness->Superior. Then, you faucet the Reference Mode swap.

You can even use one other function of Reference Mode known as Superb-Tune Calibration to additional refine the white level and luminance (brightness) of your iPad Professional’s show.

CIE has a standardized process for changing from a lightweight supply’s uncooked spectral radiance to luminance. It’s thought-about a subjective measurement of how an individual perceives a lightweight’s brightness or depth.

The CIE luminance conversion is actually a conversion from an electromagnetic radiation worth to a basic perceived brightness stage.

iPadOS’s Superb-Tune Calibration controls are situated proper under the Reference Mode swap.

To make use of Superb-Tune Calibration you will have an exterior show colour measuring system that may bodily report the values of your iPad Professional’s show. You then enter these measured values into the Settings app to inform iPadOS the best way to alter the show.

This ensures your iPad Professional adjusts its show for any colour variations within the particular person system’s show {hardware}. This supplies a extra precise white level and colour gamut primarily based on actual measurements of the show’s output.

To run the bodily measurement, you may additionally must obtain a take a look at sample, which Apple supplies on the AV Basis Developer’s Web page underneath “Associated Sources”.

Reference Mode may also be used with Apple’s Sidecar in case you are utilizing your iPad Professional as a secondary reference show to your Mac.

Through the use of Reference Mode in your iPad Professional you may guarantee the colours you or a shopper wish to see in your workflow are precisely what you anticipate them to be.