Automate information loading out of your database into Amazon Redshift utilizing AWS Database Migration Service (DMS), AWS Step Capabilities, and the Redshift Information API


Amazon Redshift is a quick, scalable, safe, and totally managed cloud information warehouse that makes it easy and cost-effective to research all of your information utilizing normal SQL and your present ETL (extract, rework, and cargo), enterprise intelligence (BI), and reporting instruments. Tens of hundreds of shoppers use Amazon Redshift to course of exabytes of knowledge per day and energy analytics workloads akin to BI, predictive analytics, and real-time streaming analytics.

As an increasing number of information is being generated, collected, processed, and saved in many alternative programs, making the information out there for end-users on the proper place and proper time is a vital facet for information warehouse implementation. A totally automated and extremely scalable ETL course of helps reduce the operational effort that you will need to spend money on managing the common ETL pipelines. It additionally gives well timed refreshes of knowledge in your information warehouse.

You possibly can strategy the information integration course of in two methods:

  • Full load – This methodology entails utterly reloading all the information inside a selected information warehouse desk or dataset
  • Incremental load – This methodology focuses on updating or including solely the modified or new information to the prevailing dataset in a knowledge warehouse

This submit discusses how you can automate ingestion of supply information that modifications utterly and has no strategy to observe the modifications. That is helpful for patrons who need to use this information in Amazon Redshift; some examples of such information are merchandise and payments of supplies with out monitoring particulars on the supply.

We present how you can construct an automated extract and cargo course of from numerous relational database programs into a knowledge warehouse for full load solely. A full load is carried out from SQL Server to Amazon Redshift utilizing AWS Database Migration Service (AWS DMS). When Amazon EventBridge receives a full load completion notification from AWS DMS, ETL processes are run on Amazon Redshift to course of information. AWS Step Capabilities is used to orchestrate this ETL pipeline. Alternatively, you may use Amazon Managed Workflows for Apache Airflow (Amazon MWAA), a managed orchestration service for Apache Airflow that makes it easy to arrange and function end-to-end information pipelines within the cloud.

Resolution overview

The workflow consists of the next steps:

  1. The answer makes use of an AWS DMS migration activity that replicates the complete load dataset from the configured SQL Server supply to a goal Redshift cluster in a staging space.
  2. AWS DMS publishes the replicationtaskstopped occasion to EventBridge when the replication activity is full, which invokes an EventBridge rule.
  3. EventBridge routes the occasion to a Step Capabilities state machine.
  4. The state machine calls a Redshift saved process via the Redshift Information API, which hundreds the dataset from the staging space to the goal manufacturing tables. With this API, you may also entry Redshift information with web-based service purposes, together with AWS Lambda.

The next structure diagram highlights the end-to-end resolution utilizing AWS providers.

Within the following sections, we display how you can create the complete load AWS DMS activity, configure the ETL orchestration on Amazon Redshift, create the EventBridge rule, and check the answer.


To finish this walkthrough, you will need to have the next stipulations:

Create the complete load AWS DMS activity

Full the next steps to arrange your migration activity:

  1. On the AWS DMS console, select Database migration duties within the navigation pane.
  2. Select Create activity.
  3. For Activity identifier, enter a reputation to your activity, akin to dms-full-dump-task.
  4. Select your replication occasion.
  5. Select your supply endpoint.
  6. Select your goal endpoint.
  7. For Migration sort, select Migrate present information.

  1. Within the Desk mapping part, below Choice guidelines, select Add new choice rule
  2. For Schema, select Enter a schema.
  3. For Schema identify, enter a reputation (for instance, dms_sample).
  4. Maintain the remaining settings as default and select Create activity.

The next screenshot reveals your accomplished activity on the AWS DMS console.

Create Redshift tables

Create the next tables on the Redshift cluster utilizing the Redshift question editor:

  • dbo.dim_cust – Shops buyer attributes:
CREATE TABLE dbo.dim_cust (
cust_key integer ENCODE az64,
cust_id character various(10) ENCODE lzo,
cust_name character various(100) ENCODE lzo,
cust_city character various(50) ENCODE lzo,
cust_rev_flg character various(1) ENCODE lzo


  • dbo.fact_sales – Shops buyer gross sales transactions:
CREATE TABLE dbo.fact_sales (
order_number character various(20) ENCODE lzo,
cust_key integer ENCODE az64,
order_amt numeric(18,2) ENCODE az64


  • dbo.fact_sales_stg – Shops each day buyer incremental gross sales transactions:
CREATE TABLE dbo.fact_sales_stg (
order_number character various(20) ENCODE lzo,
cust_id character various(10) ENCODE lzo,
order_amt numeric(18,2) ENCODE az64


Use the next INSERT statements to load pattern information into the gross sales staging desk:

insert into dbo.fact_sales_stg(order_number,cust_id,order_amt) values (100,1,200);
insert into dbo.fact_sales_stg(order_number,cust_id,order_amt) values (101,1,300);
insert into dbo.fact_sales_stg(order_number,cust_id,order_amt) values (102,2,25);
insert into dbo.fact_sales_stg(order_number,cust_id,order_amt) values (103,2,35);
insert into dbo.fact_sales_stg(order_number,cust_id,order_amt) values (104,3,80);
insert into dbo.fact_sales_stg(order_number,cust_id,order_amt) values (105,3,45);

Create the saved procedures

Within the Redshift question editor, create the next saved procedures to course of buyer and gross sales transaction information:

  • Sp_load_cust_dim() – This process compares the shopper dimension with incremental buyer information in staging and populates the shopper dimension:
CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dbo.sp_load_cust_dim()
LANGUAGE plpgsql
AS $$
truncate desk dbo.dim_cust;
insert into dbo.dim_cust(cust_key,cust_id,cust_name,cust_city) values (1,100,'abc','chicago');
insert into dbo.dim_cust(cust_key,cust_id,cust_name,cust_city) values (2,101,'xyz','dallas');
insert into dbo.dim_cust(cust_key,cust_id,cust_name,cust_city) values (3,102,'yrt','ny');
replace dbo.dim_cust
set cust_rev_flg=case when cust_city='ny' then 'Y' else 'N' finish
the place cust_rev_flg is null;

  • sp_load_fact_sales() – This process does the transformation for incremental order information by becoming a member of with the date dimension and buyer dimension and populates the first keys from the respective dimension tables within the last gross sales truth desk:
CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dbo.sp_load_fact_sales()
LANGUAGE plpgsql
AS $$
--Course of Reality Gross sales
insert into dbo.fact_sales
cust.cust_key as cust_key,
from dbo.fact_sales_stg sales_fct
--join to buyer dim
internal be part of (choose * from dbo.dim_cust) cust on sales_fct.cust_id=cust.cust_id;

Create the Step Capabilities state machine

Full the next steps to create the state machine redshift-elt-load-customer-sales. This state machine is invoked as quickly because the AWS DMS full load activity for the shopper desk is full.

  1. On the Step Capabilities console, select State machines within the navigation pane.
  2. Select Create state machine.
  3. For Template, select Clean.
  4. On the Actions dropdown menu, select Import definition to import the workflow definition of the state machine.

  1. Open your most popular textual content editor and save the next code as an ASL file extension (for instance, redshift-elt-load-customer-sales.ASL). Present your Redshift cluster ID and the key ARN to your Redshift cluster.
"Remark": "State Machine to course of ETL for Buyer Gross sales Transactions",
"StartAt": "Load_Customer_Dim",
"States": {
"Load_Customer_Dim": {
"Sort": "Activity",
"Parameters": {
"ClusterIdentifier": "redshiftcluster-abcd",
"Database": "dev",
"Sql": "name dbo.sp_load_cust_dim()",
"SecretArn": "arn:aws:secretsmanager:us-west-2:xxx:secret:rs-cluster-secret-abcd"
"Useful resource": "arn:aws:states:::aws-sdk:redshiftdata:executeStatement",
"Subsequent": "Wait on Load_Customer_Dim"
"Wait on Load_Customer_Dim": {
"Sort": "Wait",
"Seconds": 30,
"Subsequent": "Check_Status_Load_Customer_Dim"

"Check_Status_Load_Customer_Dim": {
"Sort": "Activity",
"Subsequent": "Alternative",
"Parameters": {
"Id.$": "$.Id"

"Useful resource": "arn:aws:states:::aws-sdk:redshiftdata:describeStatement"

"Alternative": {
"Sort": "Alternative",
"Decisions": [
"Not": {
"Variable": "$.Status",
"StringEquals": "FINISHED"
"Next": "Wait on Load_Customer_Dim"
"Default": "Load_Sales_Fact"
"Load_Sales_Fact": {
"Sort": "Activity",
"Finish": true,
"Parameters": {
"ClusterIdentifier": "redshiftcluster-abcdef”,
"Database": "dev",
"Sql": "name dbo.sp_load_fact_sales()",
"SecretArn": "arn:aws:secretsmanager:us-west-2:xxx:secret:rs-cluster-secret-abcd"

"Useful resource": "arn:aws:states:::aws-sdk:redshiftdata:executeStatement"

  1. Select Select file and add the ASL file to create a brand new state machine.

  1. For State machine identify, enter a reputation for the state machine (for instance, redshift-elt-load-customer-sales).
  2. Select Create.

After the profitable creation of the state machine, you may confirm the main points as proven within the following screenshot.

The next diagram illustrates the state machine workflow.

The state machine contains the next steps:

  • Load_Customer_Dim – Performs the next actions:
    • Passes the saved process sp_load_cust_dim to the execute-statement API to run within the Redshift cluster to load the incremental information for the shopper dimension
    • Sends information again the identifier of the SQL assertion to the state machine
  • Wait_on_Load_Customer_Dim – Waits for no less than 15 seconds
  • Check_Status_Load_Customer_Dim – Invokes the Information API’s describeStatement to get the standing of the API name
  • is_run_Load_Customer_Dim_complete – Routes the following step of the ETL workflow relying on its standing:
    • FINISHED – Passes the saved process Load_Sales_Fact to the execute-statement API to run within the Redshift cluster, which hundreds the incremental information for truth gross sales and populates the corresponding keys from the shopper and date dimensions
    • All different statuses – Goes again to the wait_on_load_customer_dim step to attend for the SQL statements to complete

The state machine redshift-elt-load-customer-sales hundreds the dim_cust, fact_sales_stg, and fact_sales tables when invoked by the EventBridge rule.

As an non-obligatory step, you may arrange event-based notifications on completion of the state machine to invoke any downstream actions, akin to Amazon Easy Notification Service (Amazon SNS) or additional ETL processes.

Create an EventBridge rule

EventBridge sends occasion notifications to the Step Capabilities state machine when the complete load is full. You can even flip occasion notifications on or off in EventBridge.

Full the next steps to create the EventBridge rule:

  1. On the EventBridge console, within the navigation pane, select Guidelines.
  2. Select Create rule.
  3. For Identify, enter a reputation (for instance, dms-test).
  4. Optionally, enter an outline for the rule.
  5. For Occasion bus, select the occasion bus to affiliate with this rule. If you need this rule to match occasions that come out of your account, choose AWS default occasion bus. When an AWS service in your account emits an occasion, it at all times goes to your account’s default occasion bus.
  6. For Rule sort, select Rule with an occasion sample.
  7. Select Subsequent.
  8. For Occasion supply, select AWS occasions or EventBridge companion occasions.
  9. For Technique, choose Use sample kind.
  10. For Occasion supply, select AWS providers.
  11. For AWS service, select Database Migration Service.
  12. For Occasion sort, select All Occasions.
  13. For Occasion sample, enter the next JSON expression, which seems to be for the REPLICATON_TASK_STOPPED standing for the AWS DMS activity:
"supply": ["aws.dms"],
"element": {
"eventId": ["DMS-EVENT-0079"],
"detailMessage": ["Stop Reason FULL_LOAD_ONLY_FINISHED"],
"class": ["StateChange"]

  1. For Goal sort, select AWS service.
  2. For AWS service, select Step Capabilities state machine.
  3. For State machine identify, enter redshift-elt-load-customer-sales.
  4. Select Create rule.

The next screenshot reveals the main points of the rule created for this submit.

Take a look at the answer

Run the duty and anticipate the workload to finish. This workflow strikes the complete quantity information from the supply database to the Redshift cluster.

The next screenshot reveals the load statistics for the shopper desk full load.

AWS DMS gives notifications when an AWS DMS occasion happens, for instance the completion of a full load or if a replication activity has stopped.

After the complete load is full, AWS DMS sends occasions to the default occasion bus to your account. The next screenshot reveals an instance of invoking the goal Step Capabilities state machine utilizing the rule you created.

We configured the Step Capabilities state machine as a goal in EventBridge. This allows EventBridge to invoke the Step Capabilities workflow in response to the completion of an AWS DMS full load activity.

Validate the state machine orchestration

When the complete buyer gross sales information pipeline is full, you might undergo the complete occasion historical past for the Step Capabilities state machine, as proven within the following screenshots.


The Information API and Step Capabilities AWS SDK integration gives a sturdy mechanism to construct extremely distributed ETL purposes inside minimal developer overhead. Contemplate the next limitations when utilizing the Information API and Step Capabilities:

Clear up

To keep away from incurring future costs, delete the Redshift cluster, AWS DMS full load activity, AWS DMS replication occasion, and Step Capabilities state machine that you simply created as a part of this submit.


On this submit, we demonstrated how you can construct an ETL orchestration for full hundreds from operational information shops utilizing the Redshift Information API, EventBridge, Step Capabilities with AWS SDK integration, and Redshift saved procedures.

To study extra in regards to the Information API, see Utilizing the Amazon Redshift Information API to work together with Amazon Redshift clusters and Utilizing the Amazon Redshift Information API.

Concerning the authors

Ritesh Kumar Sinha is an Analytics Specialist Options Architect based mostly out of San Francisco. He has helped clients construct scalable information warehousing and massive information options for over 16 years. He likes to design and construct environment friendly end-to-end options on AWS. In his spare time, he loves studying, strolling, and doing yoga.

Praveen Kadipikonda is a Senior Analytics Specialist Options Architect at AWS based mostly out of Dallas. He helps clients construct environment friendly, performant, and scalable analytic options. He has labored with constructing databases and information warehouse options for over 15 years.

Jagadish Kumar (Jag) is a Senior Specialist Options Architect at AWS targeted on Amazon OpenSearch Service. He’s deeply keen about Information Structure and helps clients construct analytics options at scale on AWS.